Truth

 

Conscience

Afghanistan humaniste

Competence

 

Integrity

 

 
Part One: About the Monarchy 1747-1973……………………………………...……13
 
I: The Absolute Monarchy……………………………..……………………….……...15
 
Chapter One: The State…………………………………………………………...…...17
Section One: The Concept of the State………………………………………......17
Sub-Section One: Sociological and Political Definitions of the State…..17
Sub-Section Two: The Emergence of the State…………………………18
 
Chapter Two: The Afghan State………………………………………………...……21
Section One: Indirect Origin of the Afghan State………………………….….…21
Section Two: Direct Origin of the Afghan State……………………………...…22
Section Three: Foundation of the Afghan State…………………………………23
Sub-Section One: Loya Jirga, Creators of the Afghan State…………….23
Sub-Section Two: Sense and the Essence of Loya Jirga, the Creators of the Afghan State…………………………………………………………...…24
 
Chapter Three: The Nation……………………………………………………….…...25
Section One: The Concept of the Nation…………………………..…………….25
Sub-Section One: The German School………………………………..…25
Sub-Section Two: The French School………………………………...…26
Section Two: The Afghan Nation………………………………………………..26
Sub-Section One: The Afghan Nation in the Original Sense……………26
Sub-Section Two: The Afghan Nation in the Actual Sense…………..…27
 
Chapter Four: The Constitution……………………………………..…………….…29
Section One: The Concept of the Constitution…………………..………………29
Section Two: The Classification of the Constitution…………………………….30
Sub-Section One: The Formal and Material Constitutions…………………..30
A. The Formal Constitution …………………………………………….30
B. The Material Constitution………………………………………..…..31
Sub-Section Two: The Soft and Rigid Constitutions………………………...31
A. The Soft Constitution………………………………………………...31
B. The Rigid Constitution…………………………………………….…32
Sub-Section Three: The Written and Habitual Constitutions……….………32
A. The Written Constitution………………………………………….…32
B. The Oral constitution…………...……………………………..……..33
 
Chapter Five: The Traditional Afghan Constitution of 1747 to 1923……………....35
Section One: The System of the Afghan State………………………………...…36
Sub-Section One: The Monarchial System of the Afghan State…………36
Sub-Section Two: The Dynastic Stability of the Afghan Monarchy….…36
Section Two: The Judicial Nature of the Monarchial Afghan Regime……….…37
Sub-Section One: The Levers of Power……………………………..….37
Sub-Section Two: The Center of Power…………………………………38
 
II: The Reformist Monarchy 1919-1929…………..………………..…………........…41
 
Chapter One: The Establishment of the First Written Afghan Constitution 1923
……………………………………………………………………………………………43
Section One: The writing of the Constitution…………………………...……….44
Sub-Section One: The Authoritarian Methods of Establishing the Constitution………………………………………………………………44
A. The Writing of the decree…...………………………………...…44
B. The Writing of the Contract…………………………………..…45
Sub-Section Two: The Democratic Methods of Establishing the Constitution………………………45
A. Direct Intervention of the People……………………………...…45
B. Indirect Intervention of the People………………………………46
Section Two: The Technique of Establishing the First Written Afghan Constitution………………………………………………………………………47
 
Chapter Two: The Contents of the Constitution of Amanullah…………………….49
Section One: The Political Philosophy of the Constitution of Amanullah………49
Sub-Section One: the Philosophical Source of the Constitution of Amanullah……………………………………………………………..…50
A. A Creative Philosophy………………………………………...…50
B. A Voluntary Philosophy…………………………………………51
Sub-Section Two: The Constitutional Consequences of the Political Philosophy…………………………………………………………….…52
A. The Principle of Equality……………………………………...…53
a. The Significance of the Principle of Equality……………53
b. The Reaction of the Loya Jirga………………………….54
B. The Principle of Liberty……………………………………….…55
C. The Principle of Inviolability of Individual Property……………56
D. The Initiative and Entrepreneurial Rights……………………..…56
E. The Rights of Elected Officials Concerning Disobedience…………………………………………………56
Section Two: The Organization of Public Power…………………………….….58
Sub-Section One: The Origin of the Theory of the Separation of Power………………………………………………………………….…58
Sub-Section Two: The Interpretation of the Theory of the Separation of Power………………………………………………………………….…59
Sub-Section Three: The Absence of the Separation of Powers in the Constitution of Amanullah……………………………………………….59
A. The Embryo of Legislative Power…………………………….…60
B. A Potent Executive Power…………………………………….…60
C. An Independent Judicial Power……………………………….…61
 
 
III: The Authoritarian Monarchy 1929-1964…………………………………..…….63
 
Chapter One: The Birth of the Authoritarian Monarchy 1931………………….….65
Section One: The Constitution of 1931, Reflect of the Religious Enterprise……66
Sub-Section One: The Political Causes of the Religious Enterprise…….66
A. Internal Causes………………………………………………...…67
B. External Causes……………………………………………….…67
Sub-Section Two: The Judicial and Political Consequences of the Religious Enterprise…………………………………………………..….68
A. The Deference of the State to Religion……..……………………69
B. The Deference of the King to Religion……..……………………68
C. The Deference of the Statesmen to Religion……..…………..….69
D. The Deference of the People to Religion………..……………….70
Section Two: The Control of Religious Institutions and its role……………..….72
Sub-Section One: The Council of the Mullahs………………………..…72
Sub-Section Two: The General Direction of the Education of the Public Opinion/Perception……73
 
Chapter Two: The Organization of Public Power…………..………………...……..75
Section One: The Legislative Power………………………………………….…75
Sub-Section One: The National Assembly……………………………....75
A. The members of the National Assembly………………………...76
B. The policies of the National Assembly……………………….….76
Sub-Section Two: The Senate……………………………………….…..78
A. The composition of the Senate……………………………….….78
B. The policies of the Senate………………………………………..78
Section Two: The Power of the King……………………………………………78
Section Three: The Government………………………………………………....79
 
IV: The Constitutional Monarchy 1963-1973…………..………….……..…………81
 
Chapter One: The Revolution of the Palace 1963…………………………………….83
Section One: The Principle Factor of the Revolution of the Palace…………......83
Section Two: The Secondary Factor of the Revolution of the Palace………..….84
 
Chapter Two: The Process of the Establishment of the Constitution of 1964……...87
Section One: The Creation of Commissions of the Preparation of the Constitution…………………………………………………………………...….87
Section Two: The Revealing of the preparation of the Commissions work……..88
Sub-Section One: The Evaluative Commission of the Constitution……..88
Sub-Section Two: The Consultative Commission of the Constitution….89
 
Chapter Three: The influence of the Constitution of 1964…………....…………......91
Section One: The Birth of the Constitutional Monarchy 1964……………….…92
Sub-Section One: The Reason behind the Constitutional Monarchy…....92
Section Two: The Characteristics of the Constitutional Monarchy…………...…93
Sub-Section One: The Limited Powers of the King over the people…….93
A. The Preamble of the Constitution 1964………………………...……94
a) The Content of the Preamble……………………………....94
b) The Judicial Nature of the Preamble………………………94
B. The Fundamental Rights and Duties of the People…………………..96
a) The Principle of Equality……………………………………..96
1) The Philosophical Source of the Principle of Equality………………………………………..…97
2) The Domains of the Principle of Equality………...….97
b) The Principle of Liberty……………………………………....98
1) The Liberty of Expression and Opinion………………98
2) The Political Liberty……………………………….….99
3) The Legal Principle………………………………….101
Sub- Section Two: Power limitations of the King with respect to the Government………….101
A. The existence of a real legislative power…………….…………102
a) Wallassi Jirga..……………………………………………...102
1) The Composition of the National Assembly..………102
2) The Power of the National Assembly………………103
b) Masharanou Jirga..………………………………………….103
1) The Composition of the Senate..……………………104
2) The Competence of the Senate……………………..104
B. The Bipartisan Executive Party...………………………………105
a) The Composition of the Government…..…………………..105
b) The Make up of the Government……………………………106
C. The Independent Judicial Power……...………………………...107
a) The Power of the Supreme Court…...………………………107
b) The King's Nominating Powers…...………………………..108
Sub-Section Three: The Exception on the Limitations of the King's powers…………………………………………………………………..110
A. The Reasons for Martial Order.………………………………...110
B. The Consequences of Martial order……….……………………110
Section Three: The Birth of the Afghanistan Parliament….……………………111
Sub-Section One: The Origin of Parliamentarianism...………………...112
Sub-Section Two: The Characteristics of Parliamentarianism……..…..112
A. The Political Responsibility of the Government…..……………112
a) The Motion of Censure.…………………………………….114
1) Partial Reasoning…....………………………………….114
2) Provisional Reasoning…….……………………………114
 
b) The Right of Interpolation…...……………………………..115
B. The Right to Dissolve the Parliament…..………………………116
a) The Reason for the Right to Dissolve the Parliament………116
b) The Lack of Use of the Right to Dissolve the Parliament….117
 
Part Two: The Republic since 1973…….……….……………………………………119
 
I: The Authoritarian Republic of 1973-1978…….…………………………………121
 
Chapter One: The Birth of the Republic of Afghanistan of 1973…………………123
 
Section One: The Coup d'Etat of 1973……………………………..…………..123
Sub-section One: The development of the Coup d'Etat of 1973…….....123
Sub-section Two: The coup d'Etat of 1973-a model example…………124
Section Two: The Political Reasons behind the Coup d'Etat of 1973……….....125
Sub-section One: The Political Reasons for the Coup d'Etat of 1973….126
A. The Disfunctionality of the Parliament…...…………………….126
a) Chronic absenteeism ..……………………………………...127
b) Debates……………………………………………………..127
B. The Inertia and the Instability of the Government……...………128
a) Coherency…………...………...……………………………128
b) The Governmental Instability……...……………………….129
c) The Absence of a Majority in the Parliament……………....130
Sub-section Two: The Economic Causes of the Coup d'Etat……..……131
A. The Reduction in Investments….……………………………...131
B. Famine…………………………………………………………..131
Sub-section Three: The Legal Reasons for the Coup d'Etat……………132
A. The Constitutional ousting of the Royal Family…...……..…….132
B. The Fighting of the Daoud Rear Guard…..…………………….133
 
Chapter Two: The Process for Establishing the Constitution of 1977………….…135
Section One: The Dissemination of the Constitution of 1964……………..…...135
Section Two: The Preparation of the Constitution of 1977…………………….136
 
Chapter Three: The Characteristics of the Constitution of 1977………………….139
 
Section One: The Socio-Economic Character of the Constitution of 1977.……139
Sub-section One: The Preamble of the Constitution of 1977……..……140
Sub-section Two: The Special Socio-Economic stand of the Constitution of 1977………………………………………………………………….141
Section Two: The Far-Reaching Powers of the President………..…………….143
Sub-section One: The Presidential Election…...…………..….………..143
A. The Single Candidate...…………………………………………143
B. The Election of the President by Indirect Universal Suffrage….145
Sub-section Two: The Powers of the President of the Republic….……146
A. The Powers of the President during Peace.……………………..146
B. The Powers of the President during Crisis...……………………146
a) The Proclamation of a State of Crisis………………………147
b) The Consequences of a State of Crisis…..………………….147
Section Three: The Position of the President in the Government….……………148
Sub-section One: The Legislative Powers of the President….…………148
A. The Formal Existence of the National Assembly…..…………..148
a) The Absence of Open Candidature...……………………….148
b) The Functioning of the National Assembly...………………149
B. The Absence of a real Legislative Power…….………………...149
a) The Absence of Legislative Initiative…….………………...149
b) The Presidential Intervention……………………………….150
Sub-section Two: The Governmental Powers of the President of the Republic...………………………………………………………………151
A. The Constitutive Existence of the Government..….……………151
B. The Guide of the Government…………………………………..151
C. The Political Responsibility of the Government in front of the President…....…………………………………………………...152
Sub-section Three: The Judicial Powers of the President of the Republic
…………………………………………………………………….…….153
A. The Constitutive Existence of the Judicial Authority.……….…153
B. The Interdependence of the Judicial System…..……………….154
a) The Process of Nomination and Revocation of the Judges....154
b) The Role of the Judges………...…………………………....155
Sub-section Four: The Partisanal Powers of the President of the Republic ………………………………………………………………………….155
A. The President's Party……...……………………………………156
B. The Powers of the President of the Republic……..…………….156
Section Four: The Fundamental Rights and Obligations….……………………157
 
Chapter Four: The Legal Nature of the First Republic of Afghanistan…..……….159
 
Section One: The First Republic of Afghanistan, a Parliamentary regime?..…..159
Sub-section One: The Inexistence of a Cohesive and Unified Government …………………………………………………………………………………..159
Sub-section Two: The Absence of Governmental Political Responsibility in front of the National Assembly………………………………………160
Sub-section Three: The Corruption of the Right of Dissolution…..…....161
Section Two: The First Republic Afghan, a Presidential Regime?..…………...161
Sub-section One: The Presence of an all Powerful President………..…161
Sub-section Two: The Absence of a Legislative Power…………..……162
Sub-section Three: The Absence of a Strict Separation of powers..…...162
Section Three: The First Afghan Republic, a Parliamentary or a Federal Regime?..……………………………………………………………………….163
Sub-section One: The Parliament Divided…………………………..…163
Sub-section Two: The Federal Regime…...…………………..………...165
 
 
II: The Communist Republic 1978-1992…………..…………………………..…….167
 
Chapter One: The Birth of the Communist Republic in 1978.………….…………169
Section One: The Political Cause of the Communist Republic..……………….169
Sub-section One: The Division of Power with the Communists....….…169
Sub-section Two: The Ousting of the Communists from Power…..…...169
Section Two: The Diplomatic Cause of the Birth of the Communist Republic..170
Sub-section One: The Beginnings of Diplomatic Change....…………...171
A. The Reconciliation with Iran…………………..……………….171
B. The Reconciliation with Pakistan…………………..…………..172
Sub-section Two: The Redispatchment of the Soviet envoys…..…...…174
Section Three: The Coup d'Etat of 1978……………………...………………..175
Sub-section One: The Leaders of the Coup d'Etat of 1978……...…..…175
Sub-section Two: The Trigger of the Coup d'Etat of 1978……..…...…177
Section Four: The Formation of the Government of 1978………………….….179
Sub-section One: The Division of Power between the Communists…...179
Sub-section Two: The Initial Decisions……………………..………….180
 
Chapter Two: The Soviet Invasion of 1979………………………………………….181
Section One: A Normal Day at the Presidential Palace!…..……………………181
 
Section Two: The Development of the Invasion…..…………………………...182
 
Section Three: The Causes of the Soviet Invasion of 1979…………………….183
Sub-section One: The Internal Causes of the Invasion…...………….....183
A. The War at the top of the Government.…………………………183
a) Factional Fighting.………………………………………….183
b) Fighting among the Chiefs...………………………………..184
B. The War from the Top of the Government against the People....185
a) The Civil Unrest…....……………………………………….185
b) The Governmental Suppression…..………………………..186
Sub-section Two: The External Causes to the Invasion...……..……….187
A. Legal Issues…………………………….……………………….187
a) The Act of Legitimate Defense…….……………………….188
b) The Counteraction to Legitimate Defense………………….188
B. Strategic Factors……...…………………………………………189
a) The Strategic Importance of Afghanistan…………………..189
b) The Soviet Expansionism…………………………………..190
 
Chapter Three: The Constitutional Declaration of 1980………………………...…191
Section One: The unique adoption situation of the Constitutional Declaration of 1980…………………………………………………………………….……….191
 
Section Two: The contents of the Constitutional Declaration of 1980…………193
Sub-section One: The Socio-Economic Priority………...………...……193
Sub-section Two: The Reduction of the Political Rights…...……….….194
 
Chapter Four: The Constitution of 1987……………...……..……………………...197
Section One: The Reasons for the Constitution of 1987………………………..198
Section Two: The Outline of the Constitution of 1987……...………………….198
Sub-section One: The Changing of the Guard...……………………..…199
Sub-section Two: The Elements of Stability...………………..………..200
Section Three: The Form of the Constitution of 1987………………………….201
Sub-section One: The Return in Strength of the Islamic Religion…......202
A. Islam, the Legal Base…..……………………………………….203
B. Islam, the State Religion…..……………………………………203
Sub-section Two: The Resumption of Human Rights………………….204
A. The Principle of Equality…...…………………………………..205
B. The Principle of Liberty...………………………………………205
a) The Idea of the Principle of Liberty…...…….……………...205
b) The Limits to the Principle of Liberty….…………………..206
Section Four: The Essence of the Constitution of 1987……………………..…207
Sub-section One: The Functional and the Structural Benefits of the Combined Power of the President of the Republic…………………….207
A. The Structural Benefits of a Unified Power Position in Normal Circumstances...……………………………………………...…207
a) The Presidential Election…...………………………………207
1) The Requirements of the Candidate…………………….208
2) Universal Suffrage and Elections……………………….208
b) The Executive Powers of the President of the Republic…... 209
1) The Right of Nomination and Revocation…….………..209
2) The Right of Dissolution.………………………………210
c) The Legislative Powers of the President of the Republic.….210
d) The Legal Capacity of the President of the Republic……....211
e) The Partisan Powers of the President of the Republic….…..211
1) The Acknowledgement of the National Front……….....212
2) The Special Status of the President's Party…...………..212
B. The Functional and the Structural Advantages of the President's Unified Power during Times of Crisis…………...…………..…213
a) The Proclamation of a State of Crisis…..…………………..213
b) The Consequence of a State of Crisis.……………………...213
Sub-section Two: The Applied Separation of Powers during Normal Times……...…………………………………………………………….214
A. The Structure of the Parliament…...……………………………214
a) The National Assembly……………………………………..215
1) The Composition of the National Assembly……...…….215
2) The Function of the National Assembly...…………...…215
3) The Attributes of the National Assembly…...………….216
b) The Senate…………………………………….…………….216
B. The Structure of the Government…..…………………………..218
a) The Composition of the Government…..…………………..218
b) The Abilities of the Government..………………………….218
C. The Legal structure of the Government…..…………………….219
a) Judicial Power………………………………………………219
b) The Functions of the Court…..……………………………..220
Sub-section Three: The Creation of the Constitutional Council…..……220
A. The Structure of the Constitutional Council…...……………….221
B. The Abilities of the Constitutional Council...…………………..221
 
Chapter Five: The Constitutional Revision of 1990…………………………...…….223
Section One: The Text of the Constitutional Revision of 1990………………...223
Sub-section One: The Text addressing the Military…..………………..224
Sub-section Two: The Political Revision..…………………...………...224
Sub-section Three: The Diplomatic Section…...………………..……...224
Section Two: The Revisional Procedure of the Constitution of 1987…………225
Section Three: The Extent of the Effect of the Revision of 1990……………...226
Sub-section One: An Effect Technically Limited…..…………………..226
Sub-section Two: A Politically Important Effect..……...……………...227
 
Chapter Six: The Legal Nature of the Afghani Political Regimes from 1978 to 1992
……………………………………………………………………………………….....229
Section One: The Influence of the Communist Ideology…...…………...……..229
Section Two: The Monopolization of Political Power…...…………….………230
 
 
III: The Islamic Republic 1992-2001………….…..…………………………………231
 
Chapter One: The Birth of the Islamic Republic of the Moudjahiddins 1992…….232
Section One: The Internal Causes of the Birth of the Islamic Republic.……….232
Sub-section One: The Afghan Resistance...……..………………...……232
A. The Origin of Jihad…...………………………………………...232
B. The Generalization of Jihad…...………………………………..234
C. The Types of Jihad…..…………………………………………234
a) Tribal War..…………………………………………………234
b) Classical War…...…………………………………………..234
c) Guerilla Warfare…...……………………………………….235
D. The Victorious Resistance…..………………………………….235
Sub-section Two: The Political Failure of the Communists..…..……...236
A. The Political Failure of the Religious Concessions……………237
a) The Ousting of the Communist Leaders….………..……….237
b) The Reconversion of the Communist Leadership…….……238
B. The Failure of the Division of Power..…………………………239
a) The Appeal to the Monarchists………………………….….240
b) The Appeal to the Islamists…………………………………240
Section Two: The External causes of the Birth of the Islamic Republic…….…241
Sub-section One: The Failure of Soviet diplomacy…………………….241
A. The Geneva Negotiations...………………………………….….242
a) The Development of the Negotiations…..…………….……242
b) The Result of the Negotiations of Geneva……………...…..242
B. The Failure of the Geneva Accords…...…...…...………………243
Sub-section Two: The reasons for the failure of the Soviet diplomacy...243
 
Section Three: The Formation of the Moudjahiddin Islamic Government in 1992
………………………………………………………………………………….244
Sub-section One: The Peshawar Accord…………………..…………...245
A. The Peshawar Negotiations……………………………………..246
B. The Contents of the Peshawar Accord………………………….246
Sub-section Two: The War of the Moujahiddin chiefs..……..…………247
A. Tribal disputes.....……………………………………………….248
B. The Mecca Accord…….………………………………………..248
a) The Development of Negotiations..………………………..248
b) The Violation of the Mecca Accord………………………...249
Section Four: The Islamic Constitutional Project of 1993……………………...250
Sub-section One: The Elaboration of the Islamic Constitutional Project…
…………………………………………………………………………………..250
Sub-section Two: The Contents of the Islamic Constitutional Project…….
…………………………………………………………………………………..251
A. The Total Acceptance of Islam by the State…………...……….251
B. The Total Acceptance by the of the Islamic Religion by the People……………………………………………………….…..252
C. The Organization of the Government Power..……………….…253
a) Executive Power……………… …….……………………...254
1) Presidential Domination… ...………………...………..254
i) The Designation of the President of the Republic…254
ii) The Executive Powers of the President of the Islamic State……………..………………255
iii) The Legislative Powers of the President of the Islamic State…………..…………………255
3) The Islamic Government...….………………………….256
i) The Composition of the Government..….………….256
ii) The Abilities of the Government...………………….256
b) Legislative Power…………………………………………....257
1) The Composition of the Supreme Council………..…….257
2) The Attributes of the Supreme Council…….…………..257
i) The Legislative Functions of the Council………….257
ii) The Control of the Council……..………………….258
c) Judicial Power..……………………………………………..258
1) The Composition of the Court...…………….………….258
2) The Power of the Court.………………………………..258
 
Chapter Two: The Birth of the Taliban Islamic Republic in 1996…………..….…261
Section One: The Origins of the Taliban…………………...………..…………261
Sub-section One: The External Origins of the Taliban……..…..………261
Sub-section Two: The Internal Origins of the Taliban…………………262
 
Section Two: The Fall of the Taliban…………………...………..…………….264
Sub-section One: The Political Failure of the Taliban…….…………....265
Sub-section Two: September 11, 2001…………………...…………….265
 
Section Three: The American Military Intervention…...………………………266
Section Four: The Role of the Northern Alliance………………………. ..……267
 
IV: The Role of the post Taliban provisional Government 2001-2001……..….…..270
 
Chapter One: The Bonn Accord 2001………...……………………………………..273
Section One: The players in the Bonn Negotiations……………………………273
Sub-section One: The Afghan players in the Bonn negotiations…..…..274
A. The Northern Alliance…………………………………………274
B. The Rome Delegation…...……………………………………..275
C. The Peshawar Delegation...……………………………………276
D. The Cypriot Delegation………………………………………...276
E. Ethnic or Political Criteria…...………………………………...276
Sub-section Two: The State Players...………………………………….277
Sub-section Three: The Onusian players……..…………...……………277
Section Two: The Development of the Bonn Negotiations…..…..…………….279
Sub-section One: The Bilateral and Multilateral Discussions…..……..279
Sub-section Two: The Significant Points of the Bonn Negotiations…..280
A. The Designation of the Head of the Government….….………. 280
a) The Ousting of Rabbani.……………………………………280
b) The Reasons for Ousting Rabbani………….………………281
c) The Naming of Karzai...……………………………………282
B. The Nominations of the Ministers…..………………………….282
Section Three: The Contents of the Bonn Accord………………...……………283
Sub-section One: The Political Shutter of the Bonn Accord……...…....284
A. The Intermediary Administration…..…………………………..284
a) The Composition of the Intermediary Administration…..….284
b) The Abilities of the Intermediary Administration…….……285
B. The Judicial Power……………………………………………...285
C. The Independent Administrative Authorities…..……………….285
a) The Public and The Judicial Commissions………...……….285
b) The Human Rights Commission.…………………………...286
Sub-section Two: The Security Shutter of the Bonn Accord……...…...287
A. The Creation of the National Afghan Army…..………………..287
B. The Creation of the ISAF……………………………………….288
a) The Composition of the ISAF………………………………288
b) The Hesitations…...………………………………………...289
c) The Mission of the ISAF……………………………………291
d) The Sphere of Activity of the ISAF…………...……………291
i) Against the Extension of the Influence of Activity of the ISAF……...……………..292
ii) For the Extension of the Umbrella of the ISAF…….292
 
Chapter Two: The Emergency LOYA JIRGA 2002………………………..………295
 
Section One: The Origin of the LOYA JIRGA……………………...…………295
Section Two: The Institutionalization of the LOYA JIRGA…………………...296
Section Three: The composition of the emergency Loya Jirga………………...298
Sub-section One: Designation or Election………………………..…….298
Sub-section Two: The Representation of the Loya Jirga……..………..300
 
Section Four: The Mission of the Emergency Loya Jirga……………………...302
Sub-section One: Restoration of the Monarchy?…………….…..……..302
A. Against the Restoration of the Monarchy…………….………..302
B. For the Restoration of the Monarchy….……………….………302
C. The Discussion or the Argument…..…………………………...303
Sub-section Two: The Creation of a Mini-Parliament…..…...………....303
A. The Abandonment of the Idea of a Mini Parliament in Bonn…..304
B. The Consideration of a Mini Parliament in Kabul……………...304
Section Five: The Development of the Emergency Loya Jirga………………...305
Sub-section One: The Wavering of the Loya Jirga…………...………..305
Sub-section Two: The Election of the Transitional Administration's President……..………………………………………………………………….306
Section Six: The Formation of the Transition Administration, June 2002….…307
Sub-section One: The Change in Direction…...………………………..307
A. The Reasons for Resignation...…………………………………307
B. The Reasons for an ousting..………..…………………………..308
Sub-section Two: The Official Explanation of the Change in Direction.309
 
Third part: Which Constitution and what kind of Political Organization for Afghanistan and the Other Muslim Countries?……………….…………..………..311
 
I: Islamic Constitution or Laïque Constitution for Afghanistan?…..……………..315
 
Chapter One: An Islamic Constitution for Afghanistan?…………………………..317
 
Section One: Which Islam?…………………………………………………….317
Sub-section One: The Traditional Interpretation of Islam……..……….318
Sub-section Two: The Modern Interpretation of Islam……..………….319
Sub-section Three: Selection of the Criteria from which to choose..…..321
A. The Demographic Criteria…..………………………………….321
B. The Demographic Criteria: Democratic or Antidemocratic?…..322
a) Democratic…………………………………………………322
b) Antidemocratic……………………………………………...322
Sub-section Four: The choice of the Afghan Constituents.…...………..323
A. The Clear Choice……..………………………………………...323
a) The Constitution of 1931...…………………………………324
b) The Constitution of 1964…...………………………………324
c) The Constitution of 1977…...………………………………324
d) The Constitutional project of 1993…...…………………….325
B. The Implied Choice...…………………………………………...325
a) The Constitution of 1923…...………………………………325
b) The Constitutional Declaration of 1980…………………….326
c) The Constitution of 1987…...………………………………327
Sub-section Five: The Inevitable Exclusion of a Segment of the Afghan Population………………………………………………………………327
A. The Exclusion of the non-Muslim Afghans……………...……..327
B. The Exclusion of the Muslim Afghans, non-Hanafites…..…….329
Section Two: Which Islamic Constitution?…...………………………………..330
Sub-section One: What is the Islamic Constitution……...……………..330
A. The Inexistence of the Idea of an Islamic Constitution…...……330
a) The Inexistence in Theory of an Islamic Constitution……...330
b) The Inexistence in Practice of an Islamic Constitution…….333
B. The Causes of the Inexistence of an Islamic Constitution…..…334
a) The Absence of the "State" in Islam..………………………334
b) The "State", a Laïque Idea…...……………………………..334
Sub-section Two: "State", Islam; Two Incompatible Ideas…....…..…...335
 
Chapter Two: A Laïque Constitution for Afghanistan……..…...……………….…337
Section One: What is a Laïque Constitution?…………………………………..337
Section Two: Fundamental Criteria for a Laïque Constitution…...…………….338
Sub-section One: The Absolute Neutrality of a State…..………………339
Sub-section Two: The Absolute Respect of the Principle of Equality…339
A. The Outlawing of Discrimination ……………………...………340
B. The Incompatibility between Equality and Islam………………340
Sub-section Three: The Respect for the Principle of Liberty…..………342
A. The Idea of Liberty…....………………………………………..342
B. The Limits of Liberty…...………………………………………343
Sub-section Four: The Principle of the Separation of Powers…....…….344
Section Three: The Possibility or Impossibility of a Laïque Constitution in Afghanistan…………………………………………………….……………….345
Sub-section One: The Impossibility and Disadvantages for a Laïque Constitution in Afghanistan…………………………………………….346
Sub-section Two: The Possibility and the Advantages for a Laïque Constitution in Afghanistan…………………………………………….347
 
II: Parliamentary Constitution or Presidential Constitution for Afghanistan……351
 
Chapter One: The Incompatibility between Islam and the Presidential or Parliamentary Governmental Organizations…..……………………………………351
Section One: The Advantage of the Non-Separation of Powers in Islam to the Constituents…..……………………………………………………………...…352
Sub-section One: The Islamic Monocracy…………………..………....352
Sub-section Two: The Fundamental Philosophy of the Islamic Monocracy
………………………………………………………………………….353
Section Two: The Incompatibility between Islamic Philosophy and Enlightened Philosophy..…………………………………………………………………....354
Chapter Two: A Parliamentary Government for Afghanistan……………..……...357
Section One: What is a Parliamentary Governmental Organization…………...357
Sub-section One: An Independent and Specialized Legislature…….….357
Sub-section Two: An Autonomous and Specialized Executive…...…..358
Sub-section Three: A Collaborative Organization…..………...……….358
A. Political Governmental Responsibility…..…………………..…359
B. The Right to Dissolution.……………………………………….359
Section Two: The Advantages and the Disadvantages of a parliamentary style of Government for Afghanistan………………..………………………………….360
Sub-section One: The Principle Disadvantage of a Parliamentary system.
…………………………………………………………………………………..360
A. The Risk of an Unstable and Incoherent Majority in Parliament360
B. Possible Legal Solutions….…………………………………….361
a) Rationalization…………………………………………...…361
c) Majority elections…….…………………………………….362
C. Yet to be found solutions…………………………………….…363
Sub-section Two: The Principle Advantage of a Parliamentary Organization………………….365
A. The Collaboration of Governmental Sections…..………..……..365
a) The Political Responsibility of the Government……..…….365
b) The Right to Dissolution of the Government………………367
B. The Transformation of a Classic Parliamentary Structure…..…367
a) The Incoherency in the Theory of the Separation of Powers.368
b) The Risk in the Political Non-Separation of the Powers…...369
Chapter Three: A Presidential Organization for Afghanistan………………..…...371
Section One: What is a Presidential Organization…..…………………………371
Sub-section One: The Similar Ideas of a Presidential Organization…...371
A. A Semi-Presidential Organization…..………………………….371
B. A Presidential Organization…..………………………………..372
Sub-section Two: The Origin of the Presidential System………..……..373
Sub-section Three: The Criteria of a Presidential System…..…..……..374
A. A Powerful and Independent Executive..………………………374
a) The President, the Unique Holder of the Executive Power..374
b) The Absence of a Unified and Electoral Government……..375
B. An Independent and Powerful Legislature..……………………375
 
Section Two: The Advantages and Disadvantages of a Presidential organization for Afghanistan…..……………………………………………………………..376
Sub-section One: The Principle Disadvantages of a Presidential Organization…..………………………………………………………..376
A. The Absence of a Judicial Collaboration on the powers……….377
B. The Political Solution……..…………………………………...377
Sub-section Two: The Principle Advantages of a Presidential Organization………………….378
A. The Stability of the Executive and Legislative Powers….……..378
B. The Causes of the Stability in Political Powers………………..379
 
III: Constitutional Monarchy or a Republican Constitution for Afghanistan….381
 
Chapter One: A Monarchical Constitution for Afghanistan?………………..……383
Section One: What is a Monarchy?…..………………………………………..383
Sub-section One: The Absolute Monarchy…..………..……………….383
Sub-section Two: The Constitutional Monarchy……..…..……………384
Section Two: The Advantages and the Disadvantages of a Monarchy for Afghanistan……………………………………………………………………..385
 
Chapter Two: A Republican Constitution for Afghanistan?……………..………..387
Section One: What is a Republic?……..……………………………………….387
Sub-section One: The Authoritarian Republic..…………………..……388
Sub-section Two: The Communist Republic..…………………..……..388
Sub-section Three: The Islamic Republic……………………..………..389
Sub-section Four: The Democratic Republic…………………....……..390
A. The Free Election of a President through Universal Suffrage….390
B. The Separation of the Powers..………………………………...391
Section Two: The Advantages and Disadvantages of a Republic for Afghanistan
………………………………………………………………………………….391
 
IV: Federal Constitution or a Unified Constitution for Afghanistan..…………....393
 
Chapter One: A Unified State for Afghanistan?……………..………………….…395
Section One: What is a Unitarian State?………………………………………..395
Sub-section One: The definition of a Unitarian State…..………………395
Sub-section Two: The types of Unitarian States………………...….…..396
A. The Condensed State……..…………………………………….396
B. The Loose State…..…………………………………………….397
C. The Decentralized State………………..………………………397
a) Functional Decentralization….……………………………..398
b) Geographical decentralization……..……………………….398
D. The Regionalized State…..……………………………………..400
Section Two: The Advantages and the Disadvantages of a Unitarian State for Afghanistan……………………………………………………………………..402
Sub-section One: The Advantages of the Unitariam State…..…………402
Sub-section Two: The Disadvantages of the Unitarian State..…..…….402
 
Chapter Two: A Federal State for Afghanistan?……..………………………..…...405
Section One: What is a Federal State?…..……………………………………..405
Sub-section One: The definition of a Federal State……………………405
Sub-section Two: The process of creating a Federal State………….….406
A. The creation of a Federal State through the Integration of Independent States…………………………..……………..…………..406
a) The Transformation of a Confederation into a Federation....406
b) The Causes of the Transformation from a confederation into a Federation…..………………………………………….…..407
B. A Federal State through the Disintegration of a Unified State…408
Sub-section Three: The Organization of the Federal State…………..…408
A. The Federated Organization…………………………………….408
a) The Federated Parliament..…………………………………409
b) The Federated Government..……………………………….411
c) The Federated Courts..……………………………………..411
B. The Federal Organization…………..…………………………..412
a) The Federal Parliament…..……………………………… 412
i) The Lower House..……………………………..412
ii) The Upper House..……………………………..412
c) The Federal Government…………………..………………413
d) The Federal Supreme court……..……………………….…414
Section Two: The Advantages and Disadvantages of a Federal State for Afghanistan………………415
Sub-section One: The Advantages of a Federal State…………………..415
Sub-section Two: The Disadvantages of a Federal State…………...…..416
 
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….…..417
 
Chronology……………………………………………………………………...……419
 
Bibliography………………………………………………………………..………...429
 
Index………………………………………………………………………………….433